The only initiatives that make CCS technology installations economically feasible, other than current EOR markets, will be some combination of government subsidies and/or carbon taxes. Realistically, to make a CCS plant economic it will likely require carbon taxes on the order of $100 per MT or 10-times current world markets. The Shell project appears to have taken advantage of a past insitu tar sands production project in order to store the carbon dioxide underground in the same buried space created by displacing and recovering the tar sands oil. Yes, this operation does reduce the full-lifecycle carbon emissions of the synbit/dilbit Canadian heavy crude oil production, but this operation will be limited by the future production of tar sands oils and available buried-open geological space to store future carbon dioxide injection. This same strategy could be used within the U.S. where natural gas and fracking oil productions create other possible underground storage capacities. However, a carbon dioxide infrastructure pipeline transportation system will be needed to transport this GHG from its source, such as a coal power plant with CCS, to the vacated and available underground storage. Another issue is the risk of contaminating drinking water in the carbon dioxide. This is not an issue of carbonated water only flowing from the tap. The risk is the fact that carbonated water is highly corrosive and will leach or dissolve hazardous amount of heavy toxic metals from the underground rock formations, which risks poisoning local residents drinking water.