CAFE standards will further curtail 90/10 consumption.
Considering budget deficits and oil and gas gluts, subsidizing ethanol, 1st and 2nd generation, should have a much lower priority.
At present, the US is exporting excess subsidized 1st generation ethanol to Brazil.
There is no reason, other than political, for the US to have a subsidized 2nd generation ethanol program.
Here is another folly: exporting wood pellets to Europe.
CO2 Emissions of Exporting Wood Pellets to the UK: A 2013 study, published in Environmental Research Letters, analyzed the CO2 equivalent emissions of exporting wood pellets from the US Southwest to the UK.
A breakdown of the biomass lifecycle, according to GHG emissions, is as follows:
See Table 4, which shows 5 of the 7 CO2 emissions components.
- Pellet production accounts for about 48%
- Shipping the pellets across the Atlantic Ocean accounts for about 31%
- Burning the pellets accounts for about 10%*
* Emissions due to combustion are about 1.8 kg of CO2/kg of pellets, or 1.8 lb CO2/lb of pellets.
That means the A to Z process of getting wood from the forest, turning it into pellets, transporting the pellets from the US to power plants in the UK, and burning the pellets, would release about 1.8/0.1 = 18 kg of CO2/kg of pellets.
If the power production is at an efficiency of 30%, then 7,750 Btu/lb of pellets x 2.2 lb/kg x 0.30/(3,413 Btu/kWh) = 1.5 kWh/kg of pellets would be produced, or 18/1.5 = 12 kg of CO2/kWh for the A to Z process, if CO2 sequestering by regrowth would be ignored.
EVENTUALLY, 100% sequestering would, at the very most, offset about 2 of the 12 kg!!! Such an environmentally harmful way of having the UK, Germany, etc., meet their EU CO2 obligations should not even be allowed to exist by EU rules, and the US should not be aiding and abetting. However, some folks are making money.
This is a far worse boondoggle than the US corn-to-ethanol program, which, on an A to Z basis, is about CO2-emission neutral, but is derided by the EU.
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