In contrast, both the European Union and California have adopted serious fuel and technology regulations that independent experts agree will achieve the more aggressive 2020 emissions targets of these jurisdictions. Both governments also recognize that it is futile and foolish to spend money on domestic emission reductions if these are offset by higher emissions elsewhere. It makes no sense to switch to hybrid-electric cars in California if the resulting increased demand for electricity is provided by coal-fired power plants in Arizona or Alberta. And it makes no sense to improve vehicle efficiency if a growing amount of gasoline sold in California is produced from high emitting production processes, like that of the Alberta oil sands. This is why California has adopted a renewable portfolio standard for electricity, that restricts imports of high emission electricity, and a low carbon fuel standard for vehicle fuels, that restricts imports of high emission gasoline and diesel. There really is no other way to act responsibly in a world in which global-scale emissions pricing is unlikely to happen any time soon.